Dr Carolyn DownsHonorary Research Fellow

Specialist Areas

Sociology and History of gambling, Late Eighteenth-century business history and radicalism.
Twentieth-century history of popular culture.

Research Interests

Gambling and debt project funded by Gamcare and the Money Advice Trust
Gambling and Working-class gambling cultures, Online Social Networking and young people

Professional Body Membership and Activity

Society for the Study of Gambling
British Society of Sports Historians
Social History Society
British Society for Eighteenth Century Studies

Editorships and Consultancies

University of Salford "Gambling Studies for Gaming Industry Professionals" Distance Learning Course Materials. July - Sept 2007
BBC2: "Balderdash and Piffle" broadcast over six weeks from Monday 2 January 2006. Episode consultant and researcher (on credits) for programme six, broadcast 6 February 2006.

Media Appearances
BBC Radio Manchester-Heather Stott Show broadcast 24th June 2008
BBC Radio 4 "Women's Hour" broadcast 12 June 2008
BBC1 "Inside Out" (South East Region) broadcast 14 November 2007.
BBC 2 "The Money Programme" Broadcast 18 May 2007


Member Gambling Commission Review of Research Education and Treatment (Commenced October 2007)
Member Gambling Commission Academic Advisory Panel for 2010 Prevalence Study (Commenced June 2008)
Member Gambling Commission Community Liaison Group (Appointed July 2008)
Member of the Re-imagining democracy group: Oxford University, coordinators: Joanna Innes (History: Somerville), Mark Philp (Politics: Oriel) A British/Irish/French/Germany/US network including Bertrand Binoche of Paris I, Philippe Minard of ENS Rue d'Ulm, Paris/EHESS and Eckhart Hellmuth of Ludwig Maximilian Universitat Munchen. Funding bodies: The Scientific and Technical Section of the French Embassy; the Maison Francaise Oxford; Politics Department Oxford

Research Outputs

Authored Books

Downs C. 2009. "A Social, Economic and Cultural History of Bingo (1906-2005): the role of gambling in the lives of working women". VDM Verlag, Berlin.
isbn: 978-3-639154-72-6


Downs C. 2011. "Pirates, Death, and Disaster: Maintaining an Atlantic Network in Late Eighteenth-Century England" in: A. Gestrich and M.S. Beerbuhl (eds) Cosmopolitan Networks in Commerce and Society 1660-1914. German Historial Institute, London. pp.343-379

Downs C. 2011. "Two Fat Ladies at the Seaside; Gambling in Working Class Holidays 1920-1970" in: Right. Snape and D. Smith (eds) Recording Leisure Lives: Holidays and Tourism in 20th Century Britain. LSA Publication No. 112. pp.51-73
isbn: 978-1-905369-23-2

Downs C. 2010. "Young People Playing with Risk: Social networking and the normalisation of gambling behaviours" in: M.Stuart-Hoyle and J.Lovell (eds) Leisure Experiences: Space, Place and Performance. LSA 109. pp.25-47
isbn: 978-1-905369-20-1

Downs C. 2009. "Mass Gambling: the Mass Observation Archive and Popular Leisure" in: Bob Snape and Helen Pussard (eds) Recording Leisure Lives: Sports, Games and Pastimes in 20th Century Britain. LSA Publication No. 107. pp.117-137
isbn: 978-1-905369-18-8

Downs C. 2008. "The Changing Face of Gambling: the Gambling Act (2005) and working class gambling cultures" in: J. Caudwell, S. Redhead and A.Tomlinson (eds) Relocating the Leisure Society: Media, Consumption and Spaces -LSA Publication No. 101. LSA Publications. pp.96-122
isbn: 978-1-905369-12-6

Journal Articles

Downs C. 2010. "Mecca and the Birth of Commercial Bingo 1959-1970" Business History, vol.52 no.7, pp.1086-1107
issn: 0007-6791 doi: 10.1080/00076791.2010.523460

Downs C. 2009. "Book Review - Working Class Gambling in Britain c.1906-1960s: The Stages of the Political Debate" History, vol.94 no.313,
doi: 10.1111/j.1468-229X.2009.444_50.x

Downs C. 2007. "Review of 'The Past Within Us: media, memory, history' by Tessa Morris-Suzuki" Contemporary British History,
issn: 1361-9462

Downs C. 2007. "Two Fat Ladies, Clicketty-click: rhyming bingo calls and the English Language" Society for the Study of Gambling Newsletter, vol. no.41, pp.16-23
url: http://www.societystudygambling.co.uk/images/pdf/newsletter41.pdf

Downs C. 2007. "Book Review - Why Atheism?" Shap Journal of World Religions,
issn: 0269-9192

Downs C. 2007. "Two Fat Ladies" History Today, vol.57 no.7, pp.27-29
issn: 0018-2753 url: http://www.historytoday.com/dm_linkInternal.aspx?amid=30248872

Downs C. 2006. "Why Atheism?" Shap Journal of World Religions,
issn: 0269-9192

Downs C. 2006. "Book Review - Studies in World Religions- Judaism" Shap Journal of World Religions,
issn: 0269-9192

Downs C. 2006. "Daniel Eccleston of Lancaster (1745-1821): A Man not Afraid to Stand on the Shoulders of Giants" Quaker Studies, vol.10 no.2, pp.203-222
issn: 1363-013X

Downs C. 2005. "Book review: Studies in World Religions - Judaism" Shap Journal of World Religions,
issn: 1363-013X

Downs C. 2004. "The Business Letters of Daniel Eccleston of Lancaster (1745-1821): Trade, Commerce, and Marine Insurance in late eighteenth- century Liverpool, Lancaster and Whitehaven" Northern History, vol.16 no.1, pp.129-148
issn: 1363-013X

Downs C. 2004. "The Business Letters of Daniel Eccleston of Lancaster (1745-1821): Trade, Commerce, and Marine Insurance in late eighteenth- century Liverpool, Lancaster and Whitehaven" Northern History, vol.41 no.1, pp.129-148
issn: 1363-013X url: http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/maney/0078172x/v41n1/s8.pdf?expires=1290764418&id=59929758&titleid=11551&accname=Manchester+Metropolitan+University&checksum=67F352589F4F6C1AA64E1192D69111C0

Conference Presentations

Downs C. 2009. "Girls Playing With Risk: The Potential of Social Networking to Alter Patterns of Gambling Participation'" at: Calculated risks: new perspectives on gambling conference, London. Goldsmiths, University of London. Thursday 17 and Friday 18 September 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Selling Gambling: social change and the marketing of vice 1906-2007" at: Centre for the History of Retail and Distribution (CHORD) Conference, Wolverhampton. University of Wolverhampton. 9 and 10 September 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Uses of Cyberspace: Young People, Social Networking and Content-Generated Impacts" at: Leisure Studies Association Conference, Canterbury. LSA, Canterbury Christ Church University. 7-9 July, 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Messages for the Masses: Trade Tokens and Medals as Mass Media for Radical Ideas" at: Where Genius and the Arts Preside Matthew Boulton and His Soho Manufactory 1809-2009, Birmingham. 3-5 July 2009.

Downs C. 2009. "Gambling, Debt and the NHS Gap - Keynote" at: People, partnerships & empowerment - narrowing the gaps Bolton Health Research Forum Conference, Bolton. Albert Halls, Bolton. 30 June 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Mass Gambling" at: Mass Observation and Leisure Studies Association Conference - Recording Leisure Lives: Sports, Games and Pastimes, Bolton. University of Bolton. 7 April 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Expanding the Gambling Impacts Research Portfolio" at: Salford Seminar Series: "The Gambling Industry: Beyond the Gloom. Institute of Directors, London. 19 February 2009

Downs C. 2009. "Reading a Radical Life: Daniel Eccleston 1745-1821" at: The British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies 38th Annual Conference, Oxford. St. Hugh's College, Oxford. 6-8th January 2009

Downs C. 2008. "The Gambling and Debt Project" at: GamCare Conference, London. Institute of Directors. 14 October 2008

Downs C. 2008. "Social Networking and Youth Gambling Behaviours" at: UK Gambling and Social Responsibility Forum, Manchester. MMU. 2 September, 2008

Downs C. 2008. "Taking the Long View: charities, gambling and moral legitimacy 1800-2000" at: Voluntary Action History Society Third International Research Conference University of Liverpool. Liverpool, UK.

Downs C. 2008. "Hope, Happiness and Wellbeing: does gambling have a positive face?" at: Research Institute for Health & Social Change 2008 Annual Conference, MMU. Manchester, UK.

Downs C. 2008. "Gambling on Happiness: a moral conundrum" at: 3rd biennial Social Futures Institute Conference, Health, Wellbeing and Happiness: from Local Action to Global Change, University of Teesside.

Downs C. 2008. "Keynote: Cultural, Social and Industry Perspectives" at: National Lottery Commission Women and Gambling, Cumberland Hotel. London, UK.

Downs C. 2008. "Sport, Betting and Public Policy: the Development of an Uneasy Truce" at: Political Studies Association PSA Sport and Politics Study Group 2nd Annual Conference Liverpool Hope University. Liverpool Hope University.

Downs C. 2008. "Birch-Bark Canoes and the Development of Deism: Daniel Eccleston of Lancaster 1745-1826" at: 37th Annual Conference of the British Society for Eighteenth Century Studies St. Hugh's College, Oxford.

Downs C. 2007. "Liverpool 1779-81: A Land of Milk and Honey?" at: 'Liverpool: a Sense of Time and Place', Liverpool City of Culture. Liverpool, UK.

Downs C. 2007. "The Changing Face of Gambling: The Gambling Act (2005) and Working Class Gambling Cultures" at: Whatever Happened to the Leisure Society? Critical and Multidisciplinary [retro]spectives, Leisure Studies Association. Eastbourne, UK.

Downs C. 2007. "Oznaby, Umbrellas and Hatts for the Ladies: Trading with the West Indies during the American War of Independence" at: Association of Business Historians and the Centre for the History of Retailing, University of Wolverhampton.

Downs C. 2007. "Quality of Life: Lessons for Bolton and Beyond" at: Bolton Research Forum in Health and Social Care 4th Annual Conference.

Downs C. 2007. "The Gambling Act (2005): Quality of Life Issues and the Super Casino" at: Quality of life: lessons for Bolton & Beyond Bolton Research Forum in Health and Social Care 4th Annual Conference, Bolton. 17th May 2007.

Downs C. 2006. "Mecca and the Transformation of Bingo" at: British Society of Sports History, St. Martin's College. Lancaster, UK.

Downs C. 2006. "Women and Bingo - Contemporary vice or traditional leisure?" at: Social History Society Annual Conference, Reading University. Reading, UK.

Downs C. 2005. "A Paradox of Popular Culture - the Mass Media Adoption of the Language of a Derided Pastime" at: Material Worlds: Environment, Identity, Culture, Glasgow University. Glasow, UK.

Downs C. 2005. "Open Forum Panellist 'Art, Culture and Social Wellbeing'" at: Social Futures Institute Health, Wellbeing and Happiness Conference.

Downs C. 2004. "Daniel Eccleston - Lancaster's Quaker Radical" at: Department for Continuing Education, Public Lecture Series, The Storey Institute. Lancaster, UK.

Downs C. 2004. "Making Inclusion Work" at: CiLTHE Conference, Lancaster University. Lancaster, UK.

Downs C. 2004. "The Bingo Bandwagon, 1960-1977 - Media in Post-war Britain: Film Television and Radio in the 1950s and 1960s" at: Communication and Media Research Institute, University of Westminster.

Research Reports

Downs C., Woolrych R.D. 2009. "Gambling and Debt: Pathfinder Report" for Anonymously Peer reviewed before publication. MMU RIHSC Occasional Publications Series.
issn: 1750-1571

Other Types of Output

Downs C. 2007. "Bingo Rhyming Calls and Linguistics" no.41. Society for the Study of Gambling Newsletter.

Downs C. 2007. "Sounding Good" www.sec-ed.co.uk.
url: http://www.sec-ed.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/article.html?uid=2608

Carolyn Downs

Research Centre

Social Change & Wellbeing


Salford Business School
University of Salford
Greater Manchester
M5 4WT

Tel: 0161 295 3096

Email: c.downs@salford.ac.uk