Project ProfileSmoking prevention in young people: A cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation intentions

This study is a randomised controlled trial investigating impact of implementation intentions on smoking initiation in 11-16 year olds. This research tests an intervention to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents initially aged 11-12 years over a 4 year time period. The intervention is being conducted in 45 schools in Staffordshire and Leeds in classroom time on nine occasions. The outcome measure is smoking behaviour assessed by self-report and more objective measures (smokerlyser) at ages 11-12, 12-13, 13-14, 14-15, and 15-16 years.

Principal InvestigatorProfessor Mark Conner (University of Leeds)

Lead MMU InvestigatorSarah Grogan

  • Start Date1 July, 2012
  • End Date30 March, 2017

Project TeamProfessor Sarah Grogan

External Providers and Collaborators

Professor Rebecca Lawton, University of Leeds; Professor Christopher J. Armitage, University of Manchester; Professor Robert West, University of Leeds; Dr Kamran Siddiqi, University of York; Professor Carole Torgerson, Durham University; Ruth Simms-Ellis, University of Leeds; Keira Flett, Staffordshire University.

Projects Aims

To investigate the following research questions:

  1. Can repeated implementation intentions related to refusing offers of cigarettes reduce smoking initiation rates in 11-16 year olds relative to a control group of adolescents?
  2. What is the cost effectiveness of such an intervention?


The project is now in its third year, and all 45 schools remain fully engaged in the project.


Conner, M., Grogan, S., Lawton,R., Armitage, C., West, R., Siddiqi, K., Gannon, B., Torgerson, C., Flett,K. & Simms-Ellis, R. (2013) "Study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation intentions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents", BMC Public Health, 13, 54
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-54